There are a few styles of all purpose Japanese knives, the most popular and versatile shape is the gyuto.
Japanese gyuto is the ideal cutting knife for chefs and home cooks. They have a similar shape to the European Chef's knife and the blade length ranges from 7-10 inches. What differentiates the Japanese Gyuto to the European Chef's knife is that the steel in gyutos are made from harder types of steels. This makes the edge retain its sharpness longer.
Santoku mean 'three virtues' which refers to the way it handles vegetables, meat and fish. The santoku is similar to a gyuto except that the blade is shorter (which is great for first time Japanese Knife users) and has a less curved edge at the tip which offers less of a rocking motion. The santoku was made based on the vegetable knife (nakiri) in that its intended use is for chopping up and down rather than a back-and-forth rocking motion.
The bunka is a smaller than a gyuto (like the santoku) and features a slope-pointed tip that is great for getting under flat meat and piercing through vegetables and fruit. The bunka is great for push and pull motion in cutting rather than a rocking motion (gyuto) and chopping up-and-down (santoku).
The petty knife is considered a smaller version of the gyuto. Although the petty knife blades all fall below 6 inches, they are still extremely versatile and can be used on the board to slice, dice and mince, as well as in the hands to peel, shape and trim.
Kiritsuke simply means that the style of knife has a slanted pointed tip. Like the bunka, this is ideal for piercing and slicing through food. The kiritsuke tip is a feature available on most knife shapes.